and thin ner. n.

AMERICAN VETERINARY REVIEW,

JULY, 1892.

EDITORIAL.

ACTINOMYCOSIS.—The subject of actinomycosis has of late received a great deal of attention from American veteri- narians, with the result of giving rise to the expression of very contradictory opinions which were freely exhibited pending the trial held last year in Peoria, Ills. We have im. partially reported all the various theories and arguments propounded during the pendency of that memorable event, and have, we think, done justice to all the parties profession. ally interested in the matter without reference to the shades of opinion, or theory, or school they may have espoused, or whether in the eye of the law they may have appeared on the right or the wrong side of the case. In the publication of one of the various critiques on the subject we were obliged to express our opinions in relation to some different consider- ations connected with the case on our part, and explained that we were giving the subject a great deal of thought, and that we were not yet well prepared to change the opinion we had expressed at the trial.

In continuing our investigations our attention has been directed to the publication of some notes on actinomycosis presented to the Soczete Centrale de Medecine Veterinaire, by Professor Nocard; and as his opinion on all matters pertain- ing to our science is accepted as of the highest authority, we have much pleasure in making certain citations from his ex- pression of views, which may prove interesting and impor- tant in connection with the subjects involved in the Peoria trial. After a few allusions to the presence of actinomycosis

186 EDITORIAL.

in various parts of the world, and a quotation from the statis- tics of the disease, which shows a percentage of a compara- tively small number in France, 95 cases only having been discovered out of 131,398 animals, or a proportion of 0.72 per thousand, the professor makes a few remarks upon the frequen- cy of the seat of the actinomycotic lesions, and the location of the disease in certain organs, as the tongue, the bones of the head and the lungs, and enters upon the most interesting part of his communication, viz., the treatment of the lingual form of the affection, which, adopted by Professor Thomassen, of Utrecht, and recommended by him as early as 1885, had proved most satisfactory to him and the few who had prac- tised it. The treatment of “actinomycotic glossitis,” which is known by its symptoms and the peculiar condition of the organ affected, consists simply in the administration of iodide of potassee, with which the local application of tincture of iodine may be combined. The history of several observa- tions on this subject have heretofore appeared inthe REVIEW.

The communication of Professor Nocard concludes with the etiology and mode of entrance of the parasite, which, for many reasons, ought to be considered as being introduced through the herbaceous food, the grains, the hay and the straw, which, when taken into the mouth, and finding a solution of continuity of the mucous membrane have thus met all the re- quired facilities for infection. The lesions of the lungs may be explained by the inhalation and introduction of infected dust into the air passages, and the same may be said when the udder is the part affected, and the introduction of the parasite may have occurred through the milk channel. The invasion through the serous membranes and the abdominal organs may also be explained as occurring through the buc- cal cavity. For the renal form of the lesion he proposes no explanation.

The interesting points, as far as the Peoria case is con- cerned, follow, and we give them ina translation of Profes-

sor Nocard’s own words:

The considerations above presented are, however, sufficient to show the predominating action of vegetable alimeutation in the development of actinomy- cosis. But thus produced, is the disease contagious? Can it be communicated

vatio. a sing the je not re T same stance hi traced straws

EDITORIAL. 187

by an affected animal to his neighbors? Does he constitute a danger for those who have the care of him? Can a man contract actinomycosis from diseased animals, as he does in cases of glanders, or rabies, as he receives it in aphthous fever, trichinosis, or even tuberculosis? Evidently, the question is not yet solved; but it can be said that if actinomycosis is contagious, it is so only in a degree so slight that the danger of contagion may be considered as a neglige- able factor. It is in the country where the disease is the rarest that such a ques- tion can be most usefully studied. In France, for instance, each veterinarian sees now and then a few cases of actinomycosis of the jaw. These cases remain always isolated, though the animals live and associate with others for years.

Actinomycosis of the jaw has no effect upon the general habit of the subject ; as long as the slow progress of the disease has not involved the dental alveola, or loosened the teeth from their sockets, and the animals live, eat, work, fatten and give milk as much and as well as their neighbors. But whatever may be the duration of the sojourn in the same barns, no matter how intimate the contacts with all animals may have been, never has the disease been seen affecting other ani- mals ; and yet from time to time the actinomycotic tumor has been seen to soften and ulcerate, and through existing and persistent fistulous tracts permit the escape of pus loaded with parasites. Yet, still, I repeat no case of direct contagion has yet become known,*

Besides it is known with what difficulty experimental actinomycosis can be obtained ; whatever may have been the mode of inoculation, or the quantity of inoculating matter employed, or whether obtained from pure cultures or from fresh lesions, the result is always negative. Some authors have succeeded in giving rise to the development of tumors in animals which had received into the peritoneum fragments more or less voluminous of actinomycomes ; but the in- oculation by series has always failed, and, as the result, one is brought to the conclusion that to reproduce itself de novo in an animal organism the germ must perhaps pass through a different media. We know nothing of the evolutive pe- riod of the disease, but it is an allowable supposition that the vegetates, through which the introduction into the organism occurs, not only act as a vehicle of introduction, but that they probably furnish a necessary or perhaps simply use- ful substitute for an unknown phase of its evolution.

Should this hypothesis be admitted, the comparative history of this affection will be better understood ; it is easily explained how, out of seventy-five obser- vations of human actinomycosis counted hy Moosbrugger, he could discover but a single patient who had been in contact with animals affected with tumors of the jaw, while in forty-nine cases they were found in persons whose vocations did not require their proximity to affected cattle.

The conclusion which imposes itself is that the source of infection is the same for both men and animals, and that in all appearances gramineous sub- stances have served as vehicles for the introduction of the parasite.

In many of the cases of human actinomycosis where the cause has been traced it was in persons having thoughtlessly chewed or swallowed particles of straws or ears, or grains of wheat or rye. In the elucidation of the saprophitic

* The italics are ours. —Eb.

188 EDITORIAL.

life of the germ lies the only means of establishing on a solid basis the rules of an efficacious prophylaxy of actinomycosis, whether in man or in animals.

MALLEINE IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF LATENT GLANDERS.— How often have veterinarians been embarrassed in the pres- ence of an animal possessing a symptomatic resemblance to glanders, and yet with such a want of positiveness in its mani- festations that the question whether it is truly glanders” had almost to remain unsolved.

And yet how many means are at his disposal of which he may avail himself, as ‘aids in the solution of the question, among which are the various inoculations of other animals, from the small guinea-pig to the dog, the horse or the donkey. But to make sucha system of inoculation available, something to inoculate becomes necessary, such as the various discharges, pus, glandular tissue, etc.; and how often are they absent? There are cases where the disease is localized in the lungs, and there is nothing externally visible, and in these cases what is to be done ?

By the discovery of tuberculine, one fact was established, which, if applicable to the virus of other contagious diseases, would prove of great value.

This principle was that the products of secretion of the tuberculous bacilli, when cultivated zz vitro, have a specific and altogether special e/ective action, upon the organic lesions caused by this bacillus.

If this action existed, was it peculiar to the tuberculous bacilli, or did it not exist as well for the pathogenous microbes of other diseases? It is an importont question, and it seemed to be answered in respect to glanders in the affirmative.

Two Hessian veterinarians, Kolinng and Hellmann, were the first to announce the result of their labors in the ob- taining from the extracts of cultures of glanders the malleine, which they claimed was capable of an action upon the lesions of glanders similar to that of tuberculine upon the lesions of tuberculosis.

Malleine is the glycerinated extract of the cultures of the bacillus of glanders, and according to the veterinarians re- ferred to, a subcutaneous injection was followed in several

tra. age hin

cub ebr. ope

can ture has

two

our

orh treat 3 mit < ters sequ of th ¥ ers,

malle prog: ful gl N We h annus the S beside ans in

EDITORIAL. 189

glanderous animals, by strong febrile reaction, while healthy horses used as witnesses or tests, showed no elevation of tem- perature. As we have before reported, Dr. Kolinng died from the inoculation of glanders, while engaged in his experi- ments.

These experiments have been quite extensively repeated since. Professor Nocard recently read before the Societé Cen- trale, a communication relating to his experience with the new agent, which ends with a statement of the results obtained by him, as follows:

1. The subcutaneous injection of malleine in the dose of a cubic centimeter, gives rise, 7x glanderous horses, to a strong ebrile reaction, appearing as early as the eighth hour after the operation, and lasting for several hours following.

2. If the elevation of temperature exceeds two degrees, it can be affirmed that the animal has glanders—if the tempera- ture does not vary, or rises less than one degree, the animal has no glanders. lf the temperature rises between one and two degrees, it is not yet possible, in the present condition of our knowledge, to be positive as to whether the animal has or has not glanders; he must be considered as doubtful, and treated accordingly.

3. In all infected stables, it would be advantageous to sub- mit all the contaminated animals to the malleine test. <A bet- ter surveillance, a better regulated abatage, and more judicious sequestration would foilow, and in any case no new victims of the disease would be found.

The period must certainly soon arrive when all practition- ers, and especially all State veterinarians, will consider malleine one of the most important factors in their diagnosis, prognosis and sanitary remedies, in cases of latent and of doubt- ful glanders.

NEw YORK STATE VETERINARY MEDICAL SOCIETY.— We have received, as we go to press, the notice of the semi- annual meeting of this Society, sent to us by the kindness of the Secretary, Dr. N. P. Hinkley, V.S. The doctor sends us, besides the notice, an urgent appeal addressed to veterinari- ans in the State, asking them to lay aside all personal and

190 MR. GODBILLE.

professional business for one day to attend the meeting on the 14th of July. It is to be hoped that the call will not be ig- nored, and that the roll call will show every section of the State represented at the meeting in Syracuse. New York State ought not to remain without a veterinary society doing work in behalf of the profession, and the present Society promises well if it only receives the support of the veterina- rians of the State. The notice reads as follows:

Nortioz.—The semi-annual meeting of the New York State Veterinary Medi- cal Society will be held at the Vanderbilt House, Syracuse, on Thursday, July 14th, 1892, 10 o’clock a.m. Every qualified veterinarian in New York State ought to attend the meetings of this Society and offer his assistance in accom- plishing the good work it has undertaken for the benefit of the profession throughout the whole State. We extend a cordial invitation to every one of you to join usin this attempt to elevate the standard of our profession. Several

papers of interest will be read and offered for discussion. N. P. Hinxtey, D.V.S., See’y.

ORIGINAL ARTICLES.

ACTINOMYCOTIC GLOSSITIS. TREATMENT BY THE ADMINISTRATION OF POTASS. IODIDUM.

By Mr. GopBItiez.*

First observation. September, 23d I was called to visit a four-year-old cow, and at once recognized her trouble. The tongue was one third larger than normal, hard, and with its superior and lateral faces covered with yellowish nodules, She salivated profusely ; the intermaxillary space was much swollen and oedematous, and prehension of food was difficult, as well as mastication; temperature normal. According to the owner, the disease had existed for the past ten days.

The animal was left in the pasture, and the daily adminis- tration of 12 grammes (about two drachms and a half) iodide potassain two doses, in about a pint of water, was prescribed.

Ten days later the symptoms were much improved ; sali-

*Extracts from Professor Nocard’s paper before the Soc. Cent. de Med. Vet.

vatio1 disap] and m their yetco were A with | princi swolle and d manife and tl stoppe Sec showe She w doses, of brat Te of iod: eyes \ epider Co pastur prehen becam: ceived iodism then e final. Thi days b: examin normal lowish same fi destroy

ACTINOMYCOTIC GLOSSITIS. 191

vation much reduced, swelling of the maxillary space almost disappeared ; the tongue had again assumed its normal size and mobility ; the yellowish nodules had disappeared, and in their place were reddish granular spots, true cicatrices, not yetcovered withepithelium. The patient ate well, her flanks were full and lactation normal.

A peculiar feature was that the entire skin became covered with large, thin epidermic pellicles, of an orange yellow color, principally on each side of the neck. The eyes became swollen, the lacrymation quite active, and there were coryza and diarrhoea. As soon as these evidences of iodism were manifested, the organism being saturated with potass. iodide, and the animal on the way to recovery, the treatment was stopped. The recovery was radical, a week after.

Second observation. October 8, 1891, a cow nine years old showed an actinomycotic tongue, of eight days’ standing. She was kept in the barn, and received every day in two doses, ten grammes of potass. iodid. Diet: grass and mashes of bran and rye flour.

Ten days later improvement was well marked ; but signs of iodism were less pronounced than in the first case, as the eyes were less swollen and lachrymation less. But the epidermic exfoliation was very marked.

Considering the animal cured, she was returned to the pasture, and all treatment suspended, but four days later the prehension of food again became difficult and maxillary space became puffy and she was brought back to the barn and re- ceived six grammes of the iodide morning and evening; the iodism then reappeared and more severely than at first, and then everything proceeded favorably. Her recovery was final.

Third observation. A steer four years old had fora few days back refused his food and had salivated abundantly. On examination of the mouth, the tongue seemed absolutely normal, but the palate was tumefied and covered with yel- lowish nodules like those of an actinomycotic tongue. In the same field six weeks before, a steer had been kept, which was destroyed on account of actinomycosis of the tongue..

192 MR. GODBILLE.

This patient received potass. iodid. in decreasing doses, fifteen grammes the first day, thirteen the second, then eleven, nine, seven and five grammes, a dose which he received until the twelfth day, when he appeared entirely recovered, al- though the phenomena of iodism were not well marked.

Fourth observation. A heifer of eighteen months was affected. She was placed under the same treatment, with gradually increasing doses, beginning with five grammes the first day, and increasing one daily until twelve. The symp- toms of iodism became well marked on the sixth day, with on the eighth, coryza, an abundant flow of tears, and epidermic desquammation. The treatment was then discontinued. A few days later recovery was complete.

The following case is recorded by Prof. Nocard himself. A cow six years old, losing flesh rapidly, was sent to the butcher for slaughter. She was in bad condition, hollowed at the flank, and with the maxillary space filled with a hard, painless mass of the size of a man’s arm, not adherent to the skin. A thick viscous saliva escaped from the commissure of the lips, and exploration of the mouth seemed painful. The tongue was very large, principally at the base, hard and nodulated, and but slightly flexible ; the lateral faces covered with small tuberculiform nodosities, the mucous membrane ulcerated in spots, pressure upon which forced out little yel- lowish masses, which when crushed showed under the micro- scope the tuffs of actinomycotic growth. The temperature was normal; pulse, 46°; respiration, 12. After a few days the animal was placed under treatment as follows:

March 15th she received six grammes of potass. iodidum in a pint of water in one dose, and this was followed by eight grammes in two doses, one in the morning and one in the evening before meals. Three days later there seemed to be some improvement; on the 1gth signs of iodism were well marked, and the symptoms had subsided inseverity. On the 21st, everything was better accentuated, the improvement being more manifest, as the iodism was better marked.

On the 24th everything had assumed its normal aspect and the treatment was discontinued, and since then the animal has regained her general fat condition.

We which the va: has bet of use.

It w other t elicitec 1888 it all mea tres, the all the ity of t

The discuss seizure exclusi lesions + organs | though were mM the abd

The progres thority the dut the lim: colleagy amply dangers beg lea

ses, ren, ntil

al-

Was vith the mp- vith mic

A

self. the ved ird, the 2 of The and red ane yel- >ro- ure the

n in

ght

the . be vell the ent

and mal

TUBERCULOSIS OF ANIMALS. 193

TUBERCULOSIS OF ANIMALS IN ITS RELATION TO HUMAN ALIMENTARY HYGIENE.

By Pror. 8. ARLOING. (Continued from page 138).

II.

We believe we have answered all the principal objections which have been urged against the conclusions adopted by the various congresses in which the question of tuberculosis has been discussed. A few words more, however, may be of use.

It would have been surprising if from one congress to an- other there had been no progress accomplished in the ideas elicited and illustrated by means of these discussions. In 1888 it had been decided that it was necessary to enforce by all means possible, including the indemnification of interested par- ties, the general application of the seizure, and total destruction of all the meats of tuberculous animals, whatever might be the sever- ity of the lesions found in those animals.’ .

The ministerial decree issued during the time when your discussion was in progress did not include features of tota] seizure, or of indemnification. It remained satisfied with the exclusion of the meat from tuberculous animals. First, zf the lestons were generalized, viz., not exclusively confined to visceral organs and their lymphatic glands ; and secondly, tf the lesions, though localized, had involved the greater part of a viscera, or were mantfested by an eruption upon the walls of the thoractc or the abdominal cavity.

These restrictions had afforded evidence of important progress in the service of meat inspection, the superior au- thority having thus indicated to the municipal magistrates the duty they had to fulfil, and to the veterinary inspectors the limits within which they might interfere. Some of our colleagues consider that these restrictions are sufficient to amply satisfy all needed requirements, and remove all the dangers against which they are directed. But we respectfully beg leave to dissent from the optimistic views of our friends.

194 M. 8. ARLOING.

We are not satisfied with the decree of 1888, either in regard to the scientific or to the practical aspects which are present- ed to our view.

Indeed, in allowing free circulation to tuberculous animals, for the reason that the alterations have not gone beyond the affected organ, it implies that the virulent bacilli in these animals are never found in the vascular network of the mus. cles and glands, which in numerous cases would be an extrav- agant and erroneous assumption.*

And again, in allowing inspectors such a latitude of judg- ment in respect to the importance and the extent of tubercu- lous lesions, there remains an open door for very dangerous differences of appreciation and irregularities and errors of conduct. We have seen this exemplified in Lyons, when the veterinary inspector endeavored to conform to the provisions of the official regulations. Dairies are numerous in that region, and cattle dealers protested against the sever- ity exercised in that city, making unfavorable comparisons between that and the lenity and consideration practised in other places.

To be simpler and more logical, we would then propose to the congress to persevere in the principle of the entire seizure and destruction in all cases, without distinction, of the condemned cattle. But we must not forget that the opposi- tion to any measures designed to suppress the consumption of tuberculous meats is with an important class of interested persons largely and exclusively a question of money, and we have also shown that these measures affect one class of agri- culturists more intimately than agriculture itself, pure and simple. If we could so alter things that this fact could be ignored, then all minds might be brought into a general har- monious co-operation in the matter. In other words, instead of leaving those who are entirely dispossessed by the seizure of the diseased products to sustain the entire loss, the result-

*In a Hygienic Congress held in London not long since, Messrs. McFadyean and Woodhead reported a case in which the intra-muscular and tuberculous deposits existed with some- nodules in the lungs only, and a few lymphatic glands.

ing da amon in the we pl and as could tion te vestm To persis! clause And, urge t the en seconal in its fi strictly genera steriliz or by before volved compe: indemr tax ass

EN¢ —Inm veterné stomac sions: the sh: measur circum! time it of the | the rigt

udg- ercu- rous rs of vhen

the rous 2ver- isons ‘din

pose ntire f the posi- ytion sted 1 we agri- and d be har- tead zure sult-

dyean sulous phatic

TUBERCULOSIS OF ANIMALS. 195

ing damages ought to be equitably divided and apportioned among all who are in any degree benefitted by their interest in the trade of the cattle-market. In order to accomplish this, we propose the institution of a system of mutual warranty and assurance, which, when properly organized and operated, could not fail to be followed by excellent results. The objec- tion to such a proposition was that it would involve the in- vestment of a large capital.

To resume, I have the honor of asking this congress to persist in its previous declarations, excepting perhaps the clause relating to the destruction of the confiscated meats: And, moreover, in the interest of the public health, I would urge the establishment of an authorized meat inspection for the entire territory, and with the least possible delay. And secondly, | would ordain that the meat of tuberculous animals in its fresh state should in every case, without distinction, be strictly excluded from the markets, or from entering into general consumption as human food. T%zrdly, it should be sterilized, or transformed by the application of sufficient heat,

or by salting, according to location and other circumstances, before being offered for consumption. Fourthly, the cost in- volved in these transformations or modifications should be compensated by an indemnity. And /fth/y, and finally, this indemnity should be paid from a special fund derived from a tax assessed upon every head of cattle inspected.

ENORMOUS DIMENSIONS OF THE STOMACH OF A HORSE —In making the post-mortem of a horse fourteen years old, veternarian Koch, inspector of markets at Hagen, found the stomach of his subject to answer to the following dimen- sions: Filled with no less than 51} kilograms of food, with the shape of an enormous egg, longitudinal circumference measuring I meter and go centimeters, while transversely its circumference was I meter and 46 centimeters, at the same time it contained 84 litres of water. The mucous membrane of the left sac occupied a space four times larger than that of the right.

HERBERT OSBORN.

LICE AFFECTING DOMESTIC ANIMALS.*

By HERBERT OsBOoRN.

The following pages on some parasites that affect our domestic animals are extracted with but slight alteration from the writer’s papert published by the Division of Entomology U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, and we desire here to acknowledge the kindness of the Department officers in allowing the use of the cuts which accompany it.

It is needless to speak of the importance of the subject or to present any apology for devoting space to its consideration. The keeping of live stock for work, dairy, and meat or wool production is one of the most important industries in the state and the injuries of parasitic insects often assume important proportions. While only a few species are treated in the present paper they are such as require frequent attention.

The common lice of our domestic animals belong to two quite distinct groups of insects, and may be called for con-

venience the suctorial lice (which form the family Pediculidae) and the biting or running lice, which do not penetrate the skin to suck blood, but feed upon the epidermal scales, hairs, feathers, etc. (which are included in the family Wadlophagidace).

THE SUCTORIAL LICE.

In these there is a tubular mouth capable of being thrust into the skin to draw blood. The feet are adapted to clasping hairs and the insects are poorly adapted for locomotion except in the hairy covering of animals.

The eggs, “nits,” are attached to hairs by a glue-like sub- stance, and the young lice when hatched resemble the adults except in size. As the entire life of the parasite is passed upon the same animal or another animal of the same kind, its range of habit is easily stated.

*From Bulletin of Experimental Station of Iowa.

+I. The Pediculi and Mallophaga affecting Man and the Lower Animals, by Prof. Herbert Osborn. Bulletin 7, Division of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 18gr.

Bu found than 1 and if lated differ of the must are ac ence their to dis say.

TI pable reach says «A fle of gr side | forwa them: hold range slend four 1 the c (see _ reach pulsa and 1 stom:

LICE AFFECTING DOMESTIC ANIMALS.

But very few of the species are ever found upon any other species of animal than that which they normally infest, and if so always upon very nearly re-

2ct our lated species. Whether this is due to on from differences in the skin, of temperature, mology of the size of the hair to which they wledge must adhere and to which their feet > use of are adapted, or to some subtle differ- ence in the odor or taste peculiar to ject or their particular host which leads them ration. to discard all others, we are unable to or wool say. he state The mouth parts are necessarily ca- portant pable of great extension in order to in the reach the blood of their hosts. Uhler ion. says (Standard Nat. Hist., I, p. 209): to two “A fleshy unjointed rostrum, capable or con- of great extension by being rolled in-

culidae) side out, this action serving to bring ite the forward a chaplet of barbs which imbed , hairs, themselves in the skin to give a firm gidae). hold for the penetrating bristles, ar- ranged as chitinous strips in a long, slender, flexible tube, terminated by

thrust four very minute lobes which probe to mapng the capillary vessels of a sweat pore except (see Fig. 1). The blood being once reached a current is maintained by the ce sub- . : . Fig. 1.—Mouth parts of pulsations of the pumping ventricle pevicuius vestimenti, show- adults and the peristaltic movements of the _ ee ube—greatly enlarged. passed stomach.’

nd, it ; ee THE SuckinG Doc-LouseE. (Plate I, Fig. 2.)

Hematopinus piliferus, Burmeister.

Although the dog has been the closest companion of man among the domestic animals from very early times, and con- sequently this parasite in all probability was well known to

mals, by tment of

SS eg A PET a) GUE PET

wp Ba

198 HERBERT OSBORN.

keepers of dogs, it was not technically described until about the year 1838.

It does not appear to have been a very numerous or injuri- ous parasite, apparently much less so than the 7richodectes /atus infesting the same animal, and less annoying than either ticks or fleas. Denny says (Monog. Anop. Brit., p. 29), “I have found it upon dogs two or three times, but it is by no means of common occurrence.” We have examined many dogs in quest of it, but only a single specimen has so far been our reward. Denny says (loc. cit.), I also received specimens from the ferret.” It can hardly be inferred, however, that this animal is a normal host for the species, as such an instance might occur entirely from accident, the louse having been transferred from some dog to a ferret associated with it.

This species is somewhat smaller than the lice infesting most of the larger mammals, the full-grown individuals being nearly one-tenth of an inch long. It is described generally as of a light-red or ashy flesh color, but evidently varies as the other species, according to condition of the body as well as age of specimens. In preserved specimens these colors be- come lighter, assuming a yellowish hue, the abdomen, except where darkened by the intestine and its contents, appearing a shade lighter than the front part of the body. The abdomen is thickly covered with fine hairs and minute warty eminences, these latter when magnified about 300 diameters appearing like the scales of a lizard or fish.

Specimens from different breeds of dogs do not appear to have been noticed as different, though a form described as H. bicolor by Lucas may perhaps be found to present race characteristics.

THE SHORT-NOSED Ox-LousE. (Plate I, Fig. 1.)

Hematopinus curysternus, Nitzsch.

This is the species that has probably been familiar from early time as the louse infesting cattle, though since this species and the following one have been generally confused, it is impossible to say which has been most common. It was first accurately described by Nitzsch under the name of

Pedic and | parasi the he specie as tre asa n suppr Sil ing sp as cles quota Augu intere there color tioned under one.” parts « to rid visitor no Co! them. Th an incl a little from t the me body. from t as sho’ Th broker slightl acter, | on the The

LICE AFFECTING DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 199

Pediculus eurysternus, in 1818 (Germar’s Mag., vol. III, p. 305), and has received mention in every important treatise on parasites since that date, as well as innumerable notices under the head of animal parasites, cattle lice, etc. As with other species, the disease produced has been termed phthiriasis, and as treated by Kollar and other writers it has been recognized as a most serious pest and numerous remedies tried for its suppression.

Since it has been very generally confused wlth the follow- ing species we shall give more particular description and show as Clearly as possible how to distinguish them. The following quotation from Mr. C. W. Tenney (in Jowa Homestead for August 18, 1882) will show that this difference is not without interest or value as viewed by a practical breeder: Then there is a blue slate-colored louse and a larger one of the same color that vary somewhat in their habits, and the last men- tioned is the hardest to dislodge.” Evidently it is the species under discussion to which Mr. Tenney refers as the “larger one.” It infests particularly the neck and shoulders, and these parts are frequently worn bare by the efforts of the animal to rid itself of the irritation produced by these unwelcome visitors. Still, some cattlemen say that these parasites are of no consequence, and that they never pay any attention to them.

The full-grown females are about one-eighth to one-fifth of an inch long, and fully half that in width, while the males are a little smaller and proportionately a little narrower. Aside from the difference in size the sexes differ very decidedly in the markings and structural features on the under side of the body. The males have a broad black stripe running forward from the end of the body to near the middle of the abdomen, as Shown in Fig. 1 c (Plate [).

The females have no indication of this stripe, but the black broken band of the upper side of the terminal segment extends slightly around onthe under side. The most important char- acter, however, is the presence of two little brush-like organs on the next to the last segment, as shown in Fig. I d (Plate I).

The head is bluntly rounded in front, nearly as broad as

rene teeapranerann penne Nana tok Sg ag eee ee ag near a gettin: 5 . 2 = : = a ae an len a SOE RS I Sot ta en A meet en

Sa spe eran NE ne

200 HERBERT OSBORN.

long and with the antennz situated at the sides midway from the posterior to the anterior borders; behind these are located slight eminences upon which may be found the small eyes, which are seen with considerable difficulty. At the front of the head may be seen the small rostrum or beak, the end of which is usually at or near the surface, but which is capable of extension and retraction. The end of this beak is armed with a double row of recurved hooks (see Fig. 1 4). The function of these hooks is doubtless to fasten the beak firmly into the skin of the host, while the true pumping organ must consist, as in the Pediculi of a slender piercing tube, though we can see only slight indications of this tube within the head, and we have not seen it nor do we find any record of its having been seen fully extended in this species. Professor Harker says the rostrum can be pushed out, but his figure shows only the basal portion with the crown of hooks and nothing of the tubular parts inclosed within.

The thorax is wider than long and widest at the posterior margin where it joins the abdomen. The legs project from the side, are long and stout, and especially adapted to clasp- ing and clinging to the hair. An extra provision for this purpose consists of a double plate having fine transverse ridges in the basal joint of the tarsus. This structure appears to have been first described by Professor Harker (Agricultural Students’ Gazette, vol. I, p. 162). The abdomen differs greatly in form and size, according to the degree of distention, which accounts for the discrepancies in the different figures of this species. It may be called flask-shaped and more or less flat- tened according to the amount of matter contained in it. There is a row of horny tubercles along each side and a row of chitinous plates along each side of the upper surface of the abdomen. The spiracles are located in the tubercles at the sides, and there is one to each of the last six segments omit- ting the terminal one. In color there is some variation, as would be surmised from a comparison of descriptions by different authors. The general color of the head and thorax is a light brown approaching to yellowish, with touches of bright chestnut on the head and legs and margins of the

tho tict in f abl den ish- ser\ say. Mr. the ber« are the the | 7 very shov root stanc attac as tc the h ing a uppe vistb. powe be se the s1 or ch late a pond Plate appea The s

from ;

om

ted

yes,

t of

1 of ible ned The mly iust ugh ead, ving rker only ' the

2rlor ‘rom lasp- this verse years tural eatly rhich | this 5 flat- in it. row yf the at the omit- on, as ns by horax hes of of the

LICE AFFECTING DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 201

thorax, also touches of dark brown on these parts, more par- ticularly on the dorsal portion of the thorax. The abdomen in fresh specimens has a general bluish aspect, not so notice- able in preserved specimens, besides its color depends evi- dently in large degree upon its contents. Denny says gray- ish-white or ochraceous gray,” which would apply well to pre- served specimens, but this plate shows it a blue-gray. Harker says brownish gray. It appears to us that the term used by Mr. Tenney, blue slate-colored, comes quite as near describing the average appearance as any that we have seen. The tu- bercles at the side of the abdomen and the chitinous plates are chestnut-colored, while the most of the upper surface of the terminal segment in the female and the ventral stripe in the male are black.

The females deposit their eggs on the hair, attaching them very near the skin. Fig. 1 e represents one of the eggs, showing its attachment to the hair and the distance from the root of the hair in the specimen drawn. The adhesive sub- stance evidently invests the egg during oviposition and is attached to the hair, the egg then slightly drawn along so as to leave the glue-like mass to form a firm union around the hair and to the egg. The egg is elongate-shaped, taper- ing at the lower end, and having a cap-like covering at the upper end. The surface is set with very minute points just vistble under an inch objective, but showing clearly with a power of 300 diameters. At the surface no connection is to be seen between different points, but focusing a little below the surface brings into view what dppear to be minute threads or channels running from point to point and giving a reticu- late appearance to the eggshell. The points cannot corres- pond to the circular bodies represented in Denny’s figure (E, Plate xxv, Monog. Anop. Brit.) which have much more the appearance of protoplasmic granules of the egg contents. The shape of the egg in his figure is also entirely different