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Quod si cui mortalium cordi et cure sit, non tantum inventis herere, atque iis uti, sed ad 4 .

ulteriora penetrare; atque non disputando adversarium, sed opere naturam vincere ; deni-

que non belle et probabiliter opinari, sed certo et ostensive scire ; tales, tanquam veri scien-

tiarum filii, nobis (si videbitur) se adjungant. Novum Organum, Prefatio.





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Purpose for which the So- ciety is insti- tuted.

Name of the Society.


Gironce THE Fovrrn, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith.

To all to whom these presents shall come greeting. Whereas the Reverend William Buckland, B.D. Arthur Aikin, Esquire, John Bostock, M.D. George Bellas Greenough, Esquire, Henry Warburton, Esquire, and several others of our loving subjects, being desirous of forming a Society for investigating the Mineral structure of the Earth, and having for promoting such investigation expended considerable sums of money in the purchase and collection of Books, Maps, Specimens, and other objects, and in the publication of various works, the said William Buckland, Arthur Aikin, John Bostock, George Bellas Greenough, and Henry Warburton, have humbly besought us to grant unto them and unto such other persons as shall be appointed and elected Fellows of the Society as hereinafter is mentioned, Our Royal Charter of Incorporation, for the better carrying on the purposes aforesaid. Now therefore Know ye that we, being desirous to encourage so laudable an undertaking, have of our special grace, certain knowledge and mere motion, willed, ordained, constituted, declared, given and granted, and by these presents, Do for us, our Heirs and Successors, will, ordain, constitute, declare, give, and grant,

That our loving subjects the said Reverend William Buckland, Arthur Aikin, John Bostock, George Bellas Greenough, and Henry Warburton, and such other persons as shall from time to time be appointed and elected Fellows of the said Seciety in manner hereinafter directed, and their respective successors, shall for ever hereafter be by virtue of these presents one body Politic and Corporate, by the name of THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.” And we do will, constitute, and declare them and their successors to be one body Politic and Cor- porate, for the purposes aforesaid, and by the name aforesaid to have perpetual succession, and to have a Common Seal, with full power and authority to alter, vary, break and renew the same at their discretion, and by the same name to sue and be sued, to implead and be impleaded, and answer and be answered unto, in every Court, or place of us our Heirs and Successors.

And we do will, constitute, and grant, that the persons hereby incorporated, and their successors, shall be for ever able and capable in the Law, to purchase, receive, hold, possess, and enjoy, to them and their successors, any goods and chattles whatsoever, and (notwithstanding the statutes of Mortmain) to take, pur- chase, hold, and enjoy, to them and their successors, any lands, tenements, here- ditaments, whatsoever, not exceeding, at the time or times of purchasing or ac- quiring such lands, tenements, or hereditaments respectively, the yearly value of Two thousand pounds in the whole, computing the same at rack rent which might have been had or gotten for the same respectively at the time of the purchase or acquisition of the same: And shall have full power and authority to sell, alien, charge, or otherwise dispose of, any real or personal property so to be by them acquired as aforesaid, and to act and do in all things relating to the said Corporation, in as ample manner and form as any other our liege subjects being persons able and capable in the Law, or any other Body Politic or Corporate in our said United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, may or can act or do.

And we do hereby declare and grant, That the number of Fellows of the said Epes ies five Society shall be indefinite ; and that they the said Reverend William Buckland, Arthur Aikin, John Bostock, George Bellas Greenough, and Henry Warburton, shall be | the first Fellows of the said Society ; and that any three or more of them shall and power, for a may, on or before the third Friday in February next ensuing the date of these pre- pony. aii sents, under their respective hands in writing, appoint such other persons to be Forcion Mere Fellows and Foreign Members of the said society as are willing to be appointed, °° and as they may think fit.

And we do further declare and grant, That for the better government of the said Society, and for the better management of the concerns thereof, there shall be __ from the date of these presents, thenceforth and for ever, a President and Council Para ie of the said Society, and that such Council (whereof the President shall be deemed Ft Counc!

a Member,) shall from the date of these presents until the third Friday in February fv Members:

° . : Bi . Future Coun- next ensuing, consist of Five Members ; and from the said third Friday in February eee . ree av¥leme

thenceforth and for ever, shall consist of Twenty-three Members. bers.

And we do hereby appoint the said Reverend William Buckland to be first First Council President ; and the said Reverend William Buckland, together with the said Arthur OMEN Aikin, John Bostock, George Bellas Greenough, and Henry Warburton, to be the mn i of first Council, all and each of the aforesaid persons to continue in such their respec- thivd | Friday tive offices until the third Friday in February next ensuing the date of these presents. Feb.

And we further direct, That the Fellows of the said Society, or any Eleven or more of them, shall and may, on the said third Friday in February next ensuing, and also shall and may on the third Friday in February (or as near thereto as con- dilscriwany- veniently may be) in every successive year, assemble together at the then last or yechor si other usual place of meeting of the said Society, and by method of Ballot, remove “’«* from the then present Council one-fifth or more of the persons of whom it shall then one-sfth or be composed ; And also shall and may, by the like method of Ballot, elect other Mio anmuclly. persons, being Fellows of the said Society, into the Council, who together with the persons not so removed, shall form the Council for the then next ensuing year, so that the Members of such Council shall amount in number to twenty-three.

And also, 'That the Fellows of the said Society, or any eleven or more of them, |... shall and may, at the time and in manner aforesaid, by the like method of Ballot, te tobe elec elect from among the Members of the Council, when formed and elected in the and are to be manner aforesaid, one person to be President of the said Society for the year ofthe Coo ensuing, and so many and such persons as they shall think proper to be Vice-“" Presidents, Secretary or Secretaries, and Treasurer or Treasurers, of the said Society for the year ensuing.

And also shall and may, in case of the death of the President, or of any Vice- Power to sill President, Secretary, or Treasurer, or of any other Member of the Council for the ny ae Oe time being, of the said Society, within the space of two months next after such “*"" death, or as near thereto as conveniently may be, in manner aforesaid, elect some other person, being a Fellow of the said Society, to supply the place of such President, Vice-President, Secretary, Treasurer, or other Member of the Council

so dying.


And we do further declare and-grant, That from and after the said third Friday in February now next ensuing, the Fellows of the said Society, or any eleven or more of them, shall and may have the power, from time to time, at the General ' Meetings of the said Society, to be held at the usual place of meeting, or at such

other place as shall have been in that behalf appointed, to elect by method of Power toelect Ballot such persons to be Fellows and Foreign Members of the said Society, and pew ree"* such Fellows or Foreign Members to remove from the said Society as they shall Members,” think fit, and also shall and may from time to time nominate and appoint such and otherOm- persons as they shall think proper, to be Officers and Servants for carrying on and a a executing the necessary concerns of the said Society ; and such Officers and Ser-

vants again to remove, and renew or restore, as they shall see occasion.

And we do further declare and grant, That from and after the said third Friday in February now next ensuing, the Fellows of the said Society, or any eleven or more of them, shall and may have the power to make and establish such Orders and Bye-Laws as shall appear to them useful for the government of the said Society for defining the powers to be entrusted to the Council, the President, and other Officers thereof; and the duties to be performed by such Officers respectively, for the management of the Estates, Goods, Lands, Revenues, and business of the said Society, and for the regulating the particular manner of proposing, electing, ad-

Power tomake Mitting and removing all and every the Fellows, Foreign Members, Officers, and

préers or Bye- Servanits thereof ; for fixing the times and places of the Meetings of the said Society ; aud also the Sum or Sums to be paid by the Fellows towards carrying on the pur- poses of the said Society ; and the same Orders and Bye-Laws, from time to time, as they may see occasion to alter, suspend or repeal; and to make such new Orders and Bye-Laws in their stead as they shall think most proper and expedient, so as the same be not repugnant to these presents, or the laws of this our realm.

And also, That the Council, or any five or more of the Fellows. of the said Society, shall have power to move the enactment of any new Bye-Law, or the alteration, suspension or repeal of any existing Bye-Law, provided notice of such Motiop shall have been delivered to one of the Secretaries m writing, and shall have been read from the Chair at two successive Meetings of the Fellows of the said Seciety ; but that no such Motion shall be deemed or taken to pass in the affirmative until the same shall have been discussed and decided by Ballot at another Meeting summoned especially for that purpose, an absolute majority of the Fellows then present having voted in the affirmative. In Witness whereof, We have caused these our Letters to be made Patent.

Witness Ourself at our Palace at Westminster this Twenty-third day of April, in the Sixth Year of our Reign.

By Writ of Privy Seal, (Signed) ° SCOTT.

Lendon: printed by William Phillips, George Yard, Lombard Street.


Tue Council of the Geological Society have recently taken upon themselves the charge and management of the publication of their Transactions, for the purpose of reducing the price, and thereby promoting the diffusion of Geological information. With this view they have adopted a page more full than that of the preceding volumes, and have employed Lithographic Plates instead of Engravings on Copper, wherever the substitution could be effected without injury to the correct illustration of the subjects represented.

As the Transactions of the Geological Society will thus assume a form in some measure new; the Council, for the convenience of purchasers, have deter- mined to commence a New Series of volumes ;—the portion now published being the First Part of Volume I. Second Series.

Lonpon, June 21, 1822.



















THE Editors of the Transactions of the Geological Society are directed to make it known to the Public, that the Authors alone are respon-

sible for the facts and opinions contained in their respective papers.

It is requested that all letters and communications to the Secretaries, and presents to the Society, may be addressed to the House of the Geological Society, No. 20, Bedford Street, Covent Garden, London.



I. An Outline of the Geology of Russia. x the Hon. William 'T. H. F. Strangways, M.G.S. pt II. Remarks on the Geology of the South Coast of England, pis Bridport Harbour, Dorset, to Babbacombe Bay, Devon. By H. T. De la Beche, Esq. F.R.S. F.L.S. and M.G.S. : ; : . p. 40 III. On the Bagshot Sand. By Henry Warburton, Esq. F.R.S.V.P.G.S. p. 48 IV. Supplementary Remarks on Quartz Rock. By John McCulloch, M.D. F.R.S. F.L.S. Chemist to the Ordnance ; Lecturer on Chemistry at the Royal Military Academy ; and Geologist to the Trigonometrical Survey. p. 53 V. Additional Remarks on Glen Tilt. By John M°Culloch, M.D. F.R.S. F.L.S. Chemist to the Ordnance ; Lecturer on Chemistry at the Royal Military Academy ; and Geologist to the Trigonometrical Survey. . p. 60

VI. On the Geology of the Coast of France, and of the inland Country adjoin- ing; from Fecamp, Department de la Seine Inferieure, to St. Vaast, Department de la Manche. By H. T. De la Beetes ak FLR.S. F.L.S. and M.G.S. i, p. 78 VII. Ona reer dick Formation in Hordwell Cli Clg, hat ihe and on the subjacent Beds, from Hordwell to Muddiford. ise. EF. pap ik Secre- tary to the Geological Society. ; p. 80 VIII. On the Excavation of Valleys by diluvian Action, as illustrated by a Succes- sion of Valleys which intersect the South Coast of Dorsetand Devon. By the Rev. William Buckland, F.R.S. F.L.S. V.P.G.S. Professor of

Geology and Mineralogy in the University of Oxford. . fy pe. 9

1X. Additional Notices on the Fossil Genera Ichthyosaurus and Plesiosaurus. By the Rev. William D. Conybeare, F.R.S. M.G.S. &c. : pe 103

X. On the Valley of the Sutluj River in the Himdélaya Mountains. By Henry Thomas Colebrooke, Esq. F.R.S. F.L.S. and V.P.G.S. «pp. 194

XI. On the Geology of the North-eastern Border of Bengal. By Henry Thomas Colebrooke, Esq. F.R.S. F.LS.V.P.G.S. . . . p. 182

Appendix—On the Banks of the Tisté and Subik Rivers. From a Notice eeu, Log ae eM ee ne ees oe ee TD, Oe


XII. Description accompanying a Collection of Specimens made on a Journey

from Delhi to Bombay. By James B. Fraser, Esq. . . . poled Remarks on the preceding Paper. By the Secretaries. : : 7 p. 258

XIII. Notices and Extracts from the Minute-Book of the Geological So- ciety. . . p. 162 to 174

1. Notice Piseiine Fossil Pinas roe at the Col de Biaiees near Cha- mouny in Savoy. By H.T. De la Beche, Esq. F.R.S. &c. wp. 162

2. Notice accompanying Specimens of Lead Ore, found in Toadstone, from

near Matlock, Derbyshire. By Charles Stokes, Esq. F.R.S. &c. . p. 163 3. Notice respecting a Copper Mine at Cally in Kircudbrightshire. By

John Taylor, Esq. M.G.S. : p. 164 4. Notice respecting the Rocks of the LoS of AD ol tha Se

Straits of Malacca. Part of a Letter from Mr. William Jack to H. T.

Colebrooke, Esq. V.P.G.S. . : ° g - . ‘p. 165 5, Notice on a recent Deposit of Compact WiieMons. By Charles Stokes, Esq. F.R. A. and L.S. M.G.S. &c. : ; p- 166

6. Notice accompanying Specimens from the Morpher of the Giirs Village of Robagiri. Froma Letter from D. Scott, Esq. to H. T.

Colebrooke, Esq. . p-. 167 7. Notice on Fuller’ ecgeeh fiend in Chalk in Siohtcca By F. Sar:

gent, Esq. .. p- 168 8. On the Black Ouide of Maries ganese of Nome Fe Sauna

Parkes, Esq. F.L.S. M.G.S. &c. . . p. 168

9. Onthe Gypsum of Monte Seano. By M. sume Moar &c.. ae. . p. 169 10. Notice on the Rocks of Attica. By Srey Woods, Esq. F.L.S.

M.GS.Oe. |. ; . p. 1G 11. Notice accompanying Sriceinions From “the Beanie sland By Captain Vetch, M.G.S. : p-. 172 12. Notice on some fossil Shells yrilk SanstoncGtieen near T lenbride Wells. By Sir Alexander Crichton, F.R.S. M.G.S. &c. . «=p. 172 PART II.

XIV. Notes onthe Geography and Geology of Lake Huron. By John J. Bigsby, M.D. FLAS M.G.S.; Member of the Medico-Chirurgical Society of London ; Honorary Member of the American Geological Society. p. 175

XV. Observations on the South-western Coal District of England. By the Rev. W. Buckland, B.D. F.R.S. V.P.G.S., Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the University of Oxford ; and the Rev. W. D. Conybeare, F.R.S. W.G.S. : . : : : ¢ - pose


XVI. Geological Observations on Part of Gloucestershire and Somersetshire. By Thomas Weaver, Esq., Member of the Royal Irish ORT and of the Wernerian and Geological Societies. . p-. 317 XVII. Extracts from a Paper entitled, Remarks on the Strata at Stinchcombe near Dursley, in Gloucestershire. By George Cumberland, Esq. p. 369 XVIII. On the Crag-strata at Bramerton, near Norwich. a Richard Taylor, Esq. of Norwich. ° : ° - p. 371 XIX. On the Alluvial Strata and on the Chalk bs Norfolk and Sufoth, and on the Fossils by which me are eee se Richard ae ne of Norwich. : : p: 374 XX. On the Strata observed in ahaa at Mildenhall in Suffolk: extracted Bie a Letter addressed to W. Somerville, M.D. M.G.S. as Sir ak

Bunbury, Bart. M.G.S. . : p. 379 XXI. On the Discovery of an almost perfect Skeleton of the Bide: by the Rev. W.D. Conybeare, F.R.S. M.G.S. - p- 381

XXI. Notice on the Megalosaurus or great Fossil Lizard of siesiveud By the Rev. William Buckland, F.R.S. F.L.S. President of the Geo- logical Society, and Professor of staat aa and Sitio in the Uni- versity of Oxford, &c. , p- 390 XXII. On the Geology and Topography of the Island 13 Ce and some Y the adjacent Islands. By the late William Jack, M.D. M.G.S. p. 397

XXIII. Geological Observations made on a Voyage from Bengal to Siam and Cochin China. Extracted from a Letter to H. T. ee ie oe M.G.S. By J. Crawford, Esq. M.G.S. . p. 406

XXIV. Notes made in the course of a Voyage from Bombay to Bushire in the Persian Gulf: transmitted, with a Series of illustrative paar oe by James B. Fraser, Esq. M.G.S. . ; . - p. 409

XXV. An Account of some Effects of the late Earthquakes in Chili: ex- tracted from a Letter to Henry eee “$i VP Gas.

Mrs. Maria Graham . : p . : p- 413 XXVI. Account of some Terraces, or ancient ei in the Isle of Jura. By

Capt. Vetch, Royal Engineers, M.G.S. . . . «. p. 416 XXVIII. Notices and Extracts gti the Minute-Book of the Geological So-

ciety : : : : : » p- 418 to 424

1. Extract from two Letters dated Sierra Pili June 3d, 1822 ; and Bathurst, St. Mary’s, Gambia, July 20th, 1822 ; addressed by Jos. Byerley, Esq. to B. Fayle, Esqg., and communicated to the Society by

Dr. Babington, President. : - p. 418 2. Notice respecting the Matrix of the Brasilian Diamond. By H. Heuland, Esq. M.G.S. F ; . . p. 419

a. Notice accompanying Specimens from Ports Boise in St. Jago,


one of the Cape de Verde Islands. Extracted from a Letter from

Mujor Colebrooke to H. T. Colebrooke, Esq. M.G.S. : p. 419 4, Notice accompanying some Specimens from the Blue Chalk Marl sf Bletchingley. By Gideon Mantell, Esq. M.G.S. . . 421


Notice of the Discovery of a large Fossil Elephants “pm near Charmouth, Dorset. By H. T. De la Beche, Esq. F.R.S. Vd . p. 421 6. On the Substances contained in the Interior of Chalk-flints. By the

Rev. J. J. Conybeare, M.G.S. . : p. 422 7. Description of some Fossil hae oo the Tilgate ee in Sussex. _— . ; : : : : - p. 423

A List of the Donations to the Library, to the Collection of Maps, Plans,

Sections and Models ; and to the Cabinet of Minerals. . - p. 425—439 Index. ; : : Sphae ‘a . ; . p. AAl Explanation of the Pies,

The Binder is directed to observe, that the sheets of the present Volume (part of which was printed before the Society had determined on the com- mencement of a new series of volumes) are marked Vol. VI. instead of Second Series, Vol. I

I.—An Outline of the Geology of Russia.

By tHe Hon. WILLIAM T. H. F. STRANGWAYS, . a. s.

[ Read March 2, 1821.]

BEFORE I enter on a subject of such magnitude as the Geology of Russia, I shall state in few words the plan I mean to pursue in treating it. The vast extent of the country, the little natural connexion of its different parts, and the impossibility of examining with sufficient minuteness the true geological relations of so great a variety of strata in any moderate period of time, prevent my being able to throw into any general system even those ‘formations whose existence, extent, and characters are known to me. The country, however, is very naturally divided into districts, the geological features of which are so distinct, and their actual distance from each other at the same time so considerable, as to allow of their being described separately : were they not politically united, they would have little claim to be considered as the same country. After a short general view, therefore, I shall proceed to examine the details, each under its particular head.

The two great divisions of the empire, Russia properly so called, and Si- beria, must be considered, geologically, as perfectly independent of each other; the same boundary dividing the two countries and the two tracts of secondary country belonging to them.

The empire, taken altogether, contains five principal mining districts; two in Europe, two in Asia, and one on the confines of Russia and Siberia. Those in European Russia are the northern or Finnish district, and the cen- tral: the former reaching from the Gulf of Bothnia to the Lake Onega ; the latter stretching in an oblique direction across the country, from the govern- ment of Kalouga to that of Nishegorod *:—the metal principally worked is

* The correct name of this government, and of the town from which it derives its name, is Nishney Novgorod, familiarly abbreviated into the simple word Nishney, and frequently written Nishegorod, In each of these words the letters sh are pronounced hard, as the English s in the word leisure.


2 The Hon. Mr, Straneways on the Geology of Russia.


iron. The border or Oural district comprehends all the Oural mountains as far as they have been explored ; in other words, the greatest part of the go- vernments of Perm, Orenburg, and Viatka ; that part of the chain which lies in the governments of Vologda and Archangel being scarcely known*.

The two mining districts which lie entirely within the frontier of Siberia are those of Kolyvan and Nerchinsk. ‘That of Kolyvan is situated on the west frontier of China and of the Steppe of the Kirghis: that of Nerchinsk, beyond the Lake Baical, on the frontier of Siberia and China towards the Pacific Ocean.

The three last-mentioned districts afford almost every metal.


In traversing Russia from north to south, we find first a vast extent of pri- mitive country, comprehending Russian Lapland, Finland, the northern parts of Carelia, and part of the government of Olonetz. Its boundary on the south may be taken as follows: The Gulf of Finland; from which we may suppose a line drawn from the Berezovsky Isles, and passing within forty versts of Wyborg quite across the Isthmus to the north shore of the Lake Ladoga above Kexholm : this line may be continued in the same direction across the lake to the north-eastern shore, whence it crosses another isthmus to the northern shore of the Lake Onega above Petrozavodsk: whence being continued still in the same direction, it terminates in the White Seat. It is evident that this primitive country is only a prolongation. of that of Sweden, which it much resembles, and its connexion with which may be traced by the Isles of Aland in the south, by those in the centre of the Gulf of Bothnia, and by the Lap- land chain of mountains into Norway on the north: it probably extends also by Nova Zemlia and the islands in the Icy Sea, to the northern extremity of

* See the Map. Plate II.

+ Finland.—Under this title I comprehend the whole country of Old and New Finland and Carelia, which is still the popular name for those districts east of Wyborg: as far as the Carelian, a Finnish dialect is spoken. Under the Russian division this tract comprises the government of Abo, and the north parts of those of Wyborg and Olonetz.

t The southern outline of the granite takes a regular direction from south-east to north-west, from the south of Sweden to the north of Russia, The Pleta formation, as traced across the Baltic, is apparently parallel to the primitive, and co-extensive with it. The northern salt district and the Valday Hills also run in a parallel direction for nearly the same distance. ‘The escarpments are regularly towards the north; rolled masses of each rock are found south of its native bed, but not to the north ofit. Primitive boulders are found as far south as Moscow, but are rare in the eastern governments.

The Hon. Mr. Straneways on the Geology of Russia. 3

the Oural mountains. The northern parts* of this district are said to consist principally of trap rocks, the central of gneiss and other varieties of schistose rocks, while the southern border is entirely composed of granite. Even these subdivisions have their respective analogies with the different primitive forma- tions of Norway and Sweden, and they affect a line of bearing nearly parallel to that of the whole district, as pointed out above. This will be better under- stood by a reference to the map. Iwill now mention some of the most re- markable places, beginning from the westward.

Parcas.—This name is given to a parish comprehending several consider- able islands in the Gulf of Bothnia, about ten miles south of Abo. These islands present, in general, the same features as the main land; being usually long steep ridges of gneiss, crowned with fir trees and birch. In fact, they are but continuations of the hills of the continent, the valleys between which are above the level of the sea; while the channels between the islands may be considered as similar valleys below that level. The scenery is much more picturesque than it usually is in the inland parts of Finland, not only from the additional beauty of the water, and numerous ves- sels continually passing between Abo and the Baltic, but from the absence of those boggy plains which abound on the continent. The rocks, for the most part, are cut down perpendicularly, or nearly so, to the water’s edge, leaving little or no strand attheir foot. The soil on some of the larger islands is reckoned of a quality superior to that on the main land; those near the coast are generally inhabited; and the villages, farms, churches, and count- ing-houses of some of the wealthier inhabitants of Abo contribute not a little to embellish and enliven the scene.

On one of the principal islands of the parish of Pargas, but not that where the church and village are situated, from which the groupe derives its name, is found the mineral which has been called pargasite from its locality. It occurs in one or more large veins of milk-white primitive limestone, which traverse the whole island from side to side. This limestone, though rather too fragile and coarse-grained to deserve the name of marble, is nevertheless possessed of considerable beauty, both from the purity of its own texture and the brightness of colour of the various minerals it contains. It is sometimes clouded with a delicate yellow, sometimes with a bluish grey, (owing to the

* On the shores of the White Sea are found bunches of crystals of a sandstone resembling that of Fontainebleau, but of a browner colour. They usually appear to spring from a central ball, which is probably only the remains of a softer mass that once filled the space between the crystals, but is now washed out.


4 The Hon. Mr, Srraneways on the Geology of Russia.

admixture of felspar,) and contains many large irregular veins of augite and of hornblende rock*, also the same substances disseminated through its mass in great abundance. Bright purple spots, supposed to be fluor, are common in some varieties; also moroxite, scapolite, coccolite, and Romantzovite : tourmaline occurs, but rarely. One of the most remarkable minerals of this rock is chondrolite ; it is also one of the most plentiful. It possesses a much greater degree of hardness than the limestone, which is usually washed out of the surface of the weathered blocks, leaving only the yellow or orange-coloured mass of chondrolite behind. By this it appears, that in many cases where the chondrolite is thickly sown in the limestone, the grains, which on the fresh fracture appear to be insulated, do in fact touch one another in some point within, and are sufficiently connected to form a rugged but firm mass. This may be the case also with the other minerals. Chondrolite is found in many other parts of Finland, uniformly in primitive limestone. The pargasite itself has been so long known to mineralogists, and is described in so many peri- odical works, that a particular account of it here would be unnecessary ; especially as the Society is in possession of the detailed memoir on pargasite published by Dr. Bonstorff of the university of Abot.

The country through which the limestone vein passes is gneiss ; the fissures of which are in a direction parallel to the course of the vein. Sometimes long narrow ridges or plates of gneiss are seen in the body of the limestone itself : these are easily detected, even on the surface, from the difference of colour

and superior hardness to the mass in which they are imbedded, which causes

them to project considerably above its level. The vein may be traced along the ground, where in many places it serves as a road, by its colour alone: its breadth varies from twenty to a hundred feet, and is quarried in five or six different places. Perhaps it should not, strictly speaking, be termed a vein ; but as it seems to descend perpendicularly, and extends in an unbroken line with little or no change of direction, I adopt the name for want of a better f. Passing hence to the main land§, we observe that a gneiss, more or less

* One of these hornblende veins in one of the quarries near the western extremity of the Island, is represented in Plate I. fig 1. It is singularly interrupted.

+ Dissertatio Chemica, nova experimenta naturam Pargasite illustrantia proponens. PP. I&II. Abow 1817—1818. This limestone of Pargas, both with respect to its geological situation and external character, seems to bear some analogy to that of the Hebrides, especially of the Isle of Tiree. t At Abo it is called a Gang.

§ Another small island on this coast nearly opposite Bjorneborg is remarkable for rolled blocks of a fine-grained siliceous sandstone, of a yellowish colour, used for polishing glass. It is re-

markable that a similar stone is found in the environs of J onkoping in Sweden, especially at Barnarp near the Taberg.

= = = es i as So 7 Saeceemeetemmementitimemeemmnt=tmnmntt tet ee


The Hon. Mr. Srraneways on the Geology of Russia.

distinctly foliated, forms the most common rock of the country. 'To this, how- ever, the stone of which consists the Rock of Abo, on which the observatory is placed, ‘seems at first sight an exception. If viewed in hand specimens, or even large blocks detached from the rock, it appears to be rather a compact small-grained granite, of great hardness, abounding in garnets. But when viewed on the large scale, we see that the entire rock, as well as all the hills in the neighbourhood, is divided into layers, of great thickness indeed, but with a mutual parallelism and uniform dip. In this circumstance it agrees, not only with the nearest islands on the one hand, but on the other with the dip of some considerable hills up the valley on the road to Tavastchus.

To those who believe in the stratification of granite, few spots: can offer so much satisfaction as the Rock of Abo*. Besides the regular lines which divide the beds, the beds themselves are readily distinguishable by their different co- lour, some being whiter, others of a redder or of a browner hue, but all equally studded with small garnets. 'The magnificent columns which adorn the inte- rior of the public hall of the University of Abo, are single shafts cut from this. rock ; they bear a most brilliant polish.

The hills in this part of Finland are higher and more abrupt, and the valleys: more fertile and infinitely better cultivated than those of the eastern districts. The hills are usually perpendicular where sections of the beds of rock are ex- posed to view, while on the opposite side, the back of the upper bed forms the gradual slope which conducts you to the bottom. Many are the secondary rocks whose inclination and escarpment are much less regular.

Near Tavastchus the granitic slates abound, frequently waved in the most singular and irregular manner. This is every where evident, owing to the absence of soil, which leaves patches of many square yards perfectly bare, on the top and sides of every hill. This circumstance is connected with another, namely, the peculiar roundness of all the hills and rocks, of which I shall say more hereafter. At 'Tamala, between this town and Abo, are glass-works sup- plied with flit from the rose quartz rocks of the neighbourhood ; there is also found there a tabular variety of felspar.

At Orijerwy, near Helsingfors, is. a copper mine, in which is found the blue quartz called steinhilite, also garnets, and primitive limestone. The latter is too valuable a material to be neglected in such a country as this.

* Near the summit of this rock I found a block of rose quartz and yellowish felspar 3 also a block of a blacker rock of the same composition as the rock of the hill, but which occurs in situ in a hill on the right bank of the river. This black variety was traversed by very thin white veins ; the substance of the rock being turned red to a small distance on each side the vein throughout its entire length,

6 The Hon. Mr. Straneways on the Geology of Russia.

These slaty kinds of primitive rock, which may all be comprehended under the term granitic slate, seem to be continued in a north-easterly direction across the country to the neighbourhood of Wilmanstrand, not far from which, the river Voxa, flowing between banks of this substance, forms the rapids of Imatra, one of the grandest spectacles of the North,and which merit a particular description. Ihave, therefore, made it the subject of a separate paper*.

Still further to the eastward, is a finer slate, which is quarried in the hills which extend at a short distance from the north-west shore of the Lake Ladoga. Its colour is a deep black, and its texture is of the very finest quality. Although not yet in the general use which it merits, it is sometimes carried to Peters- burg in large slabs for writing-tables.

In the same neighbourhood is also a garnet rock, said to resemble that of which boulders are found at Strelna. Higher up the country, near Cuopio, is found a species of potstone which jis turned for bowls of pipes and other pur-. poses ; and also a black mica slate containing staurolite, boulders of which are found near Petersburg. At Nyslotis found rose quartz.

South of the tract above described, the primitive rocks lose entirely their. schistose structure, and a true granite, perfectly free from any symptom of la- mellar arrangement, prevails. Their general character may be described as: glandular, better than by any other name, and is most conspicuous in the rocks around Wyborg f. .

On a hill situated on the right bank of the river which runs by Borgo, and nearly opposite the town, is a tor of granite, in which red felspar predomi- nates, spotted with small crystals of hornblende and black mica. Rolled masses of this rock are by no means uncommon in the neighbourhood of Petersburg. Between Borgo and Louisa are found boulders of jet black mica slate, both with and without garnets; the former variety is by far the hardest: also fragments

* Imatra is not the only remarkable waterfall on the Voxa: Turus or Turu Nemy is cele- brated for the fall of Turoun kosky, immediately below which is the passage of the river. It is only fifteen versts from the post station of Kevy nemy, on the great road from Petersburg to Kexholm; and is close to the spot where the Voxa is crossed on the road from Kevy nemy to Raizela. Many other parts of this river, or chain of lakes, present interesting and picturesque scenery, especially in the neighbourhood of St. Peter and St. Andrus; the road by which vil- lages, though only a cross road, is far superior to the best of the great roads of Russia.

There are two rapids at Imatra: the upper, where the Voxa issues from the Lake Saima; the lower, which is the most remarkable, a few versts further down the river. The latter I have de- scribed in another place. —Geological Transactions, vol. v. page 340.

+ This granite may be well examined in the quarries belonging to Baron Nicolai, in an island in the Gulf of Wyborg, which furnished the great columns now seen in the Cazan Church at


The Hon. Mr. Straneways on the Geology of Russia. 7 of a yellowish or reddish hornstone, somewhat like a large rolled block of the same substance now on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, at Becova.

From Fredericshamn towards Wyborg*, and from Wyborg to the south- ward, as far as the granite can be traced in situ, it is distinguished by round or oval masses of reddish felspar of very regular appearance. Hornblende, which is plentiful, not only occurs mixed with the quartz between these portions of felspar, but is also disseminated through the felspar in small black spots. The felspar is sometimes dark red, sometimes pale pink or flesh- coloured, sometimes white or ash-coloured.

This, as is usual with most of the large-grained granites, is very liable to decomposition : instances of which may be seen frequently in Finland ; where a great tor or boulder has often a hole cut in it large enough to admit a cart and horse; and the stone, though at a small distance it seems calculated to last for ages, is cut down and shaped away with the same ease and much in the same manner as a hayrick.

This granite is subject also to a different kind of decay, where large masses are separated by the winter frosts, in directions regulated by their prevailing fissures. ‘These fissures are usually perpendicular, with horizontal ones cross- ing them at right angles, and at considerable distances, producing a sort of columnar arrangement on a large scale; not irregular, though ill defined. This structure may be traced every where on the surface of the rock, and af- fords bold and picturesque facades wherever the hill rises to a considerable elevation. North of Wyborg the country rises considerably, and in general, even in the flattest parts of Finland, are to be seen some of these abrupt rocks. They are too large perhaps to be called tors, but yet bear a considerable like- ness to them. I will instance only a spot about three versts from Ehandola, on the road to St. Andrus, by the side of a small lake, as one of the best and most picturesque examples; and the perpendicular rocks which surround the beautiful cove called the Fins Haven, in the pleasure-ground of Monplaisir, the country house of Baron Nicolai, on an island in the Gulf of Wyborg.

Ihave before stated that towards the south the granite sinks beneath its own rubbish, and its ending is not known. It appears, however, in rocks on the Voxa between Imatra